Executive Summary

This paper provides a summary of workforce statistics on the Public Service 1 , as at 30 June 2008. The paper covers five main topics: staff numbers, recruitment and retention, pay and benefits, diversity, and leave.

Public Service employment increases. In the 12 months to 30 June 2008, the number of public servants increased by 3.6% to 45,934. This is the smallest percentage increase over the past eight years. Twenty-two departments had staff increases over the year, down from 26 in the previous year.

Superannuation. Significantly more public servants are contributing to a superannuation scheme, primarily due to the introduction of KiwiSaver. As at 30 June 2008, 58% of public servants were members of an employer subsidised scheme (51% in 2007).

Women in Senior Management. Over the year to 30 June 2008, the proportion of women in the top three tiers of management increased to 38.3% (from 37.8% in 2007). While representation of women in senior management is improving, this proportion is still significantly lower than the proportion of women employed in the Public Service (59%).

Pay and Benefits. As at 30 June 2008, the median salary in the Public Service was $51,000, and over the 12 months to 30 June 2008 the average salary rose by 5.1% to $59,532. Statistics New Zealand's Labour Cost Index shows that over the past five years, the change in salary and wage rates for the Public Service has been lower than that in the Health and Education sectors and similar to that in the private sector.

Turnover. During the year to 30 June 2008, core unplanned turnover increased to 15% (from 14% in 2007). The core unplanned turnover rate increased in 25 of the 35 departments. The occupations with the highest turnover rates were call or contact centre operators, human resource advisors and managers, and public relations professionals.

Sick and Domestic Leave. The average amount of sick and domestic leave taken increased to 7.3 days (from 6.5 in 2007). This is the highest value recorded since 2003 when the data was first collected. Twenty-three of the 35 departments showed an increase in the average number of days taken.

1 The Public Service covers those departments listed in the First Schedule of the State Sector Act 1988. There were 35 departments as at 30 June 2008 and these are listed in Appendix 1.

Background

The information in this report comes mainly from the Human Resource Capability (HRC) survey, which has collected anonymous unit-record data on staff 2 in Public Service departments since 2000. Data from Statistics New Zealand's labour market surveys is also used to allow comparisons with the labour force as a whole.

Four new variables were added to the 2008 survey. These variables provide more information on collective agreements (names and expiry dates), data on recognised previous service, and information on the destination of employees on secondment. Superannuation information was also enhanced with the addition of KiwiSaver contribution data.

2 The survey includes all permanent and temporary employees but does not include contractors or employees who work on a casual or as-required basis.

Staff numbers

Staff numbers in the Public Service

In the year to 30 June 2008, the number of staff in the Public Service increased by 3.6% (1,599 employees) to a 45,934 headcount (43,569 FTEs). Public Service staff numbers have grown for eight consecutive years, at an average rate of 5.5% per year (1,987 employees per year). In percentage terms, the increase of 3.6% to 30 June 2008 was the smallest since the survey began in 2000. Table 1 shows the data since 2003.

Table 1. Public Service employment, 2003-2008

   

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

    Headcount

Open-term

32,200

34,477

36,612

38,661

40,976

42,404

Fixed-term

2,245

3,388

3,713

3,607

3,359

3,530

Total Headcount

34,445

37,865

40,325

42,268

44,335

45,934

Percentage change

4.9%

9.9% 3

6.5%

4.8%

4.9%

3.6%

               

    Full Time Equivalents (FTEs)

Open-term

31,107

33,131

35,231

37,340

39,499

40,879

Fixed-term

2,012

2,514

2,801

2,773

2,548

2,690

Total FTE

33,118

35,645

38,032

40,113

42,047

43,569

Percentage change

4.8%

7.6%

6.7%

5.5%

4.8%

3.6%

Changes in individual departments

Changes in FTE staff numbers varied between departments (refer to Appendix 1). Excluding the effects of machinery of government changes, the percentage change over the year ranged from -13% in the Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs (MPIA) to 18% for the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). These are two of the smallest Public Service departments, and the percentage changes are based on very small numbers (six in MPIA and five in SFO).

Staff increases were spread over 22 departments compared with 26 departments in 2007. One department recorded no change in staff numbers (two in 2007) and 10 departments decreased in size (five in 2007). See Appendix 1 for details of staffing in individual departments since 2003.

Most (86%) of the recent increase in FTE staff numbers can be attributed to five departments: Department of Corrections (471), Inland Revenue (285), the Department of Labour (200), the Ministry of Justice (194), and the Ministry of Health (154). These five departments provided additional information explaining the recent staff increases.

Staff increases at the Department of Corrections are a result of ongoing recruitment of staff to support the new Spring Hill and Otago Regional Corrections Facilities (both commissioned in 2007), and significant growth in the Community Probation and Psychological Services.

The Inland Revenue Department attributes additional staff numbers to an increase in infrastructure support for KiwiSaver and other government initiatives.

The majority of additional staff at the Department of Labour were front-line immigration staff employed to support the increase in work volumes over the past year. The staff increase is in line with the department's funding model for visa and permit services provided by Immigration New Zealand.

The Special Jurisdictions area within the Ministry of Justice has grown significantly over the last three years, following the transfer of new functions including Weathertight Homes, Adjudication, Coronial Services and Māori Land Court Projects. Additional staff in the Chief Electoral Office and the establishment of the National Transcription Service in Higher Courts account for much of the growth over the past year.

Staff increases at the Ministry of Health are attributed to significant new activity including information systems development 4 , the national Health Targets, regulatory changes to improve patient safety (Medsafe), and increased programme delivery within the national cervical screening programme 5 .  Some activities 6 are for a fixed period of time and do not reflect a permanent increase in staff numbers.

There was one significant 'machinery of government' change since the last survey, with the New Zealand Food Safety Authority established as a new Public Service department on 1 July 2007 (previously part of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry).

Staffing changes by region

The HRC survey has collected regional data since the survey began in 2000. As at 30 June 2008, 41% of the Public Service workforce was based in Wellington, 20% in Auckland, 21% in other parts of the North Island, and 17% in the South Island. Table 2 shows Public Service headcounts, over the five years to 30 June 2008, within four broad regional groups.

Table 2. Headcounts by region, 2003 to 2008

 

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Change over the year to 30 June 2008

Change over the five years to 30 June 2008

Auckland

6,732

7,558

8,177

8,539

8,901

9,406

5.7%

39.7%

Wellington 7

13,912

14,970

16,193

17,488

17,894

18,698

4.5%

34.4%

Rest of the North Island

7,703

8,669

9,060

9,134

9,880

9,750

-1.3%

26.6%

South Island

5,871

6,430

6,639

6,827

7,335

7,780

6.1%

32.5%

Overseas and Unknown

226

238

256

280

325

300

-7.7%

32.7%

Staffing changes by occupation

The Australia and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) was introduced to the survey last year, replacing the outdated New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (NZSCO). With two years of ANZSCO data, changes in the occupational mix of the Public Service can now be examined.

Since the 2007 report, a set of customised Public Service occupation groups has been developed and tested with HRC survey users. These occupation groups are shown in Table 3 and provide a more tailored breakdown of the Public Service workforce than the standard ANZSCO top level groups 8 .

Four occupation groups had the largest impact on Public Service staff numbers. The number of 'Advisors and Policy Analysts' increased by 14%, and 'ICT Professionals and Technicians' increased by 11%. The 'Clerical and Administrative Workers' and the 'Inspectors and Regulatory Officers' groups had lower percentage increases (6% and 4%), but due to the size of these occupation groups they make a significant contribution to the overall increase in staff numbers.

Table 3. HRC occupation groups, 2007 and 2008

       
 

Headcount

Percentage change in Headcount

 

2007

2008

(%)

Managers

4,994

5,217

4

Advisors and Policy Analysts 9

3,094

3,516

14

Information Professionals

2,530

2,439

-4

Social, Health and Education Workers

7,962

7,976

0

ICT Professionals and Technicians

1,689

1,881

11

Legal, HR and Finance Professionals

2,384

2,476

4

Other Professionals

2,198

2,228

1

Inspectors and Regulatory Officers

8,634

9,011

4

Contact Centre Workers

2,101

2,058

-2

Clerical and Administrative Workers

8,119

8,632

6

Other Occupations

319

290

-9

Unknown

311

210

-32

Total

44,335

45,934

4

Secondments

This is the first year that both the host and home organisation in a secondment arrangement have been collected. Knowing which organisations are lending and receiving staff provides a richer view of secondments in the sector.

As at 30 June 2008, 89 Public Service employees were on secondment to another organisation. Of these 89 secondees, 56 were seconded to other Public Service departments, 21 were seconded to overseas or private sector organisations and 12 were seconded to another organisation within the public sector.

Comparison to wider public sector and labour market

Between 2003 and 2008, employment in the public sector as a whole increased by 36,452 to 335,012 (12.2%) compared with an increase of 232,000 to 2,163,800 (12.0%) in the employed labour force.

As at 30 June 2008, the Public Service made up 14% of total public sector employment (12% in 2003), and has grown more rapidly than the other parts of the sector over the last five years. Figure 1 shows relative size of the different parts of the public sector.

Figure 1. Public sector and labour market context - 2008

(For extra clarity, view Figure 1 here as a PDF file)

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Source: Statistics NZ, Household Labour Force Survey, Quarterly Employment Survey and State Services Commission, HRC Survey.

3 In 2004 1,035 employees were reclassified from casual employees (outside of the survey scope) to permanent or temporary employees. Without this change the percentage increase in headcount for 2004 would have been 7%.

4 Information systems development includes the National Systems Development Programme, and the New Zealand Health Information System.

5 Other activity includes B4 school checks (free health checks for 4 year olds), effective interventions in the criminal justice system, projects related to the Quality Improvement Committee, and increased capacity in the Sector Capability and Innovation directorate to assist with outcomes associated with "Building a Healthy Future".

6 For example, the National Systems Development Programme.

7 Regional data in the HRC is collected at a regional council level. The Wellington regional council includes four city councils (Wellington, Hutt, Upper Hutt, and Porirua) and five district councils (Kapiti Coast, South Wairarapa, Carterton, Masterton, and Tararua).

8 Top level ANZSCO groups include Sales Workers, Machinery Operators and Drivers, and Labours. Very few public servants are employed in these types of roles.

9 The 'Advisors and Policy Analysts' group is based on the single ANZSCO code 224412: Policy Analyst. Many advisory roles that can not be classified to another functional area are coded to 224412. Over 40% of the positions in this category contain 'advisor' in the job title.

Recruitment and retention

Turnover

Table 4 shows turnover rates for the Public Service from 2003 to 2008. Core unplanned turnover 10 has increased from 14% in 2007 to 15% 11 in 2008. The overall increase in core unplanned turnover was driven by increases in 25 of the 35 departments. The gross turnover rate (which includes people on fixed-term employment contracts) has not changed over the year to 30 June 2008, remaining at 20%.

Table 4. Turnover rates in the Public Service, 2003-2008 (year to 30 June)

 

2003

(%)

2004

(%)

2005

(%)

2006

(%)

2007

(%)

2008

(%)

Gross turnover rate

18

17

21

22

20

20

Core unplanned turnover rate

11

12

14

13

14

15

Male core unplanned turnover rate

9

10

12

12

12

13

Female core unplanned turnover rate

12

13

14

14

15

16

Turnover rates varied by department, gender, and occupation. Core unplanned turnover by department varied between 5.8% and 24.9%. Over the five years to 2008, female turnover rates have been two to three percentage points higher than male turnover rates.

Table 5 shows the five occupations with the highest turnover rates in the Public Service. These occupations are based on the most detailed level of the classification and occupations with less than 100 employees have been excluded from the analysis. The three occupations with the highest turnover rates are the same as 2007 and core unplanned turnover for Human Resource Managers has increased to 25% from 14% in 2007.

Table 5. Highest turnover (core unplanned) rates by occupation, 2007-2008 12

 

2007

2008

Human Resource Advisor

28%

29%

Call or Contact Centre Operator

27%

29%

Public Relations Professionals

29%

29%

Human Resource Manager

14%

25%

ICT Business Analyst

23%

25%

Tenure (length of service)

Previously, only service within an individual department was collected; it was not possible to identify the length of Public Service experience. To address this information gap, recognised previous service 13 was added to the survey.

The average length of service within a department is 8 years. A recognised previous service date was provided for 4012 employees (8.7% of current staff). The average additional previous service credited for these employees was 7 years and 50 days.

Skills supply and demand

At the same time as the SSC undertakes the HRC Survey it also undertakes a qualitative survey, the Skill Shortage Survey. This survey was revised this year and provides qualitative information on the supply and demand for skills across the Public Service. Responses were received from 32 out of 35 departments.

Recruitment difficulties were reported for many more roles across the Public Service than retention difficulties. A total of 83 roles were reported as being subject to a recruitment difficulty, but just 10 as subject to a retention difficulty. A further 37 roles were affected by a combination of the two.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is once again an area of concern, with 18 of the 32 departments reporting that they had experienced some difficulty in either recruiting or retaining ICT staff. Difficulties in recruiting or retaining policy analysts, advisors, and finance staff were also common. This could be due to a mismatch between the supply and demand of staff in these areas. The HRC survey shows that the ICT Professionals and Technicians group had the second highest increase in staff number, following the Advisors and Policy Analysts group.

Fourteen of the 32 departments reported that their recruitment or retention difficulties had resulted in higher workloads or increased pressure on staff. Ten departments mentioned that roles were left vacant for longer than anticipated as a result of the difficulties.

High market demand was mentioned by 18 of the 32 departments as a likely cause of the difficulties. Other commonly reported factors include a shortage of specialised skills, and difficulty competing with market salaries or meeting the financial expectations of applicants.

The most frequently mentioned response to overcome recruitment difficulties was to change the recruitment strategy. This is a broad category, but includes advertising through different channels and using informal networks to recruit staff.

Skill gaps in current staff in management, leadership and Māori responsiveness were widespread across the Public Service, with 10 or more departments mentioning skill gaps in each of these areas. Policy departments were far more likely than service departments to report skill gaps in current staff.

Redundancy payments

In the year to June 2008, 165 employees received redundancy payments, a decrease of four from the previous year (refer to Table 6). These payments had an average value of $47,482, up from $45,645 in 2007. Redundancy payments were made by 22 departments with six departments accounting for more than 60% of redundancies.

Table 6. Redundancy payments, 2003 - 2008

 

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Number of staff receiving redundancy payments

188

168

218

163

169

165

Average payment ($)

42,804

37,133

40,621

37,268

45,645

47,482

10 Core unplanned turnover is primarily due to resignations of open-term employees, but also includes retirements, dismissals, and death. Planned turnover includes cessations of staff on fixed-term employment agreements and cessations due to restructuring.

11 The turnover rate for the Public Service is derived from the exits from departments. As a result it includes movements between departments and so the actual level of 'loss' to the Public Service through unplanned exits is below the 15% reported here.

12 Occupations that are present in less than three departments and occupations with less than 100 staff have been excluded.

13 Previous service is recognised in different ways within the Public Service. Some departments only recognise service within the core Public Service; others recognise service from a wider number of organisations.

Pay and Benefits

Sector pay movement

Figure 2 shows the pay movements for different sectors between June 2003 and June 2008 using the Labour Cost Index from Statistics New Zealand. Over the past five years, the change in salary and wage rates for the Public Service has been lower than that in the Health and Education sectors and similar to that in the private sector.

Figure 2. Labour Cost Index (LCI) - All Salary and Wage Rates, 2003 to 2008

""

Source: Statistics NZ. Labour Cost Index - All Salary and Wage Rates

Salary rates and performance payments

As at 30 June 2008, the median base salary for public servants was $51,000 ($48,343 in 2007) and the average base salary was $59,532 ($56,619 in 2007). The 5.1% change in average salary is in line with the 5.0% change in 2007 and down from the 6.0 % change in 2006.

Average salary varied by occupation group ranging from $39,974 for contact centre workers, through to $102,687 for managers. The occupation group with the smallest increase in average salary was 'Advisors and Policy Analysts' which increased by 2% to $78,007. The largest increase was in the 'Social, Health, and Education Workers' occupation group, which increased by 5.9% to $50,759.

Table 7. Base salary of all staff, 2003-2008

 

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Median salary ($)

41,500

42,310

43,700

45,900

48,343

51,000

Average salary ($)

47,652

48,915

50,884

53,948

56,619

59,532

Percentage change in average salary (%)

3.8

2.7

4.0

6.0

5.0

5.1

Fourteen percent of public servants received lump sum performance payments during the year to 30 June 2008 14 (18% in 2007). Lump sum performance payments were made by 26 organisations and the average amount received 15 was $2,570. Table 8 below shows information on performance payments since the information was first collected in 2005.

Table 8. Lump Sum Performance payments, 2005-2008

 

2005

2006

2007

2008

Number of staff receiving performance payment

8,405

7,432

8,003

6,311

Percentage of staff receiving performance payments (%)

21

18

18

14

Average value of performance payment ($)

2,592

2,521

2,251

2,570

Pay gaps

As at 30 June 2008, the average salary for men in the Public Service was $65,475 and $55,407 for women (median salary was $55,317 and $48,174 respectively).

The gender pay gap 16 in the Public Service is currently 15.4%, down from 16.0% in 2007. This reflects the higher rate of increase in average salary for women at 5.4%, compared to 4.7% for men between 2007 and 2008. Table 9 shows the gender pay gap over the past six years.

Table 9. Gender pay gap, 2003 - 2008

 

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Labour Force (2008) 17

Gender Pay Gap (%)

15.8

17.0

16.4

16.1

16.0

15.4

14.9

Gender pay gaps within occupation groups are generally lower than the overall gender pay gap (refer to Table 10 below). The grouping of women into lower paid occupations (for example social, health and education workers, contact centre workers and clerical and administrative workers) has been identified as a significant contribution to the gender pay gap.

Table 10. Gender pay gaps by HRC occupation groups

 

Number of Women

Number of Men

Pay Gap

(%)

Managers

2,490

2,727

13.9

Advisors and Policy Analysts

1,929

1,587

10.2

Information Professionals

1,352

1,087

8.8

Social, Health and Education Workers

6,032

1,944

8.1

ICT Professionals and Technicians

602

1,279

7.9

Legal, HR and Finance Professionals

1,493

983

10.8

Other Professionals not elsewhere included

866

1,362

-2.7

Inspectors and Regulatory Officers

3,667

5,344

4.4

Contact Centre Workers

1,454

604

1.7

Clerical and Administrative Workers

6,976

1,655

4.1

Table 11 presents ethnic pay gaps 18 in the Public Service and provides a comparison to the wider employed labour force. Since 2003, the pay gap for Pacific peoples has fluctuated between 20% and 21%, and was 20% as at June 2008. The pay gap for Asian people has increased over the past five years from 7% in 2003 to 10% in 2008. The pay gap for has has ranged from 11% to 14% and was 12% as at 30 June 2008.

Table 11. Ethnic pay gaps, 2003-2008

 

2003

(%)

2004

(%)

2005

(%)

2006

(%)

2007

(%)

2008

(%)

Labour Force (2008) 19

(%)

13

14

13

12

11

12

17.4

Pacific peoples

21

20

21

21

20

20

22.2

Asian peoples

7

8

10

9

10

10

Not available

Superannuation

As at 30 June 2008, 58% (51% in 2007) of permanent public servants were members of an employer subsidised superannuation scheme, with 42% belonging to the State Sector Retirement Savings Scheme (SSRSS), 14% belonging to KiwiSaver, and 5% in the Government Superannuation Fund. Since last year the percentage of fixed-term public servants who were members of an employer subsidised superannuation scheme more than doubled to 37%.

The increases in superannuation scheme membership can be attributed to KiwiSaver coming into effect during the survey year. Up until 1 April 2008, most departments were exempt from automatically enrolling new employees into KiwiSaver. On 1 April 2008, the SSRSS closed to new members, and all departments were required to auto enrol new employees in KiwiSaver. Figure 3 shows the effect of these changes; the proportion of new employees making superannuation contributions during the three months to 30 June 2008 increased to 78% from 17% during the year to 30 June 2007.

Twenty seven percent of KiwiSaver members are also members of SSRSS. The availability of a 3% employer contribution for SSRSS compared with a 1% KiwiSaver contribution meant that almost all (99%) of these people received an employer contribution to SSRSS instead of their KiwiSaver scheme.

Figure 3. Percentage of new employees in KiwiSaver and SSRSS by month (year to June 2008)

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14 This represents the number of staff who received lump sum performance payments in the twelve months to 30 June 2008, divided by the number of public servants as at 30 June 2008.

15 The average payment excludes lump sum performance payments made to chief executives.

16 The gender pay gap is defined as the difference between the average salary of women and the average salary of men, and is expressed as a percentage of the average salary of men.

17 Source: New Zealand Income Survey 2008, Statistics New Zealand

18 Ethnic pay gaps are defined as the difference between the average salary for an ethnic group and the average salary of those not in that ethnic group, and is expressed as a percentage of the average salary of those not in the ethnic group.

19 Source: New Zealand Income Survey 2008, Statistics New Zealand

Diversity

Ethnicity

Emerging trends in ethnicity identified in the 2007 HRC survey have continued to show through in the 2008 data. The Asian ethnic group continued to grow at the fastest rate, increasing to 6.9% of the Public Service workforce. If current trends continue, the Asian ethnic group will overtake Pacific peoples as the third largest ethnic group in the Public Service by 2011. The proportion of people in the combined Middle Eastern, Latin American, and African ethnic group increased by 0.2 percentage points as did the proportion of Pacific people.

In contrast to the growth in the smaller ethnic groups, the proportion of Māori public servants has remained static over the past three years, declining slightly from 16.8% in 2007 to 16.7% in 2008. The European ethnic group continued to decrease, with 72.5% of Public Servants identifying themselves as European (down from 77.5% in 2003).

Table 12. Representation of ethnic groups 20 in the Public Service, 2003-2008

 

2003

(%)

2004

(%)

2005

(%)

2006

(%)

2007

(%)

2008

(%)

2006 Census 21

(%)

Māori

17.6

17.4

17.5

16.7

16.8

16.7

11.4

Pacific peoples

7.1

7.1

7.3

7.4

7.6

7.8

4.9

Asian peoples

4.2

4.7

5.4

5.9

6.5

6.9

8.0

European (including New Zealand European) 22

77.5

76.1

75.7

74.3

73.1

72.5

69.3

Middle Eastern, Latin American, African

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.9

0.7

Other Ethnic Group (includes New Zealander from 2006)

1.2

1.4

1.2

3.5

3.5

3.4

13.3

Women in the Public Service

Women comprise a higher proportion of the Public Service than of the labour force as a whole, at 59.0% as at 30 June 2008 (59.2% in 2007). The type of work in the Public Service may explain this high representation as many Public Service occupations (such social worker, case worker and clerical staff) have high representation of women in the labour market. Appendix 2 shows the percentage of women in each department.

The age profile of Men and Women in the Public Service differs. The average age of women as at 30 June 2008 was 41.9 years, whereas the average age of men was 44.1 years. A higher proportion of women (17.9%) were aged 20-29 years compared with men (13.3%).

Diversity in senior management

The table below shows the proportion of women, Māori, Pacific, and Asian people in senior management (Tier 1, 2, and 3). The proportion of women in the top three tiers of management increased from 37.8% to 38.3%. The proportion of Māori, Pacific, and Asian senior managers all decreased between 2007 and 2008.

Diversity in senior management, 2003-2008

 

2003

(%)

2004

(%)

2005

(%)

2006

(%)

2007

(%)

2008

(%)

Public Service Workforce (%)

Women

35.1

36.2

35.6

37.7

37.8

38.3

59.0

Māori

10.3

10.1

8.3

8.2

9.1

9.0

16.7

Pacific peoples

1.4

1.3

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.3

7.8

Asian peoples

1.4

1.3

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.4

6.9

Age Profile

Figure 4 shows that the Public Service age distribution varies noticeably from that of the employed labour force. Fewer Public Service employees are younger than 25 years old, and the Public Service workforce is heavily concentrated in the 35 to 55 year age range.

Figure 4. Age profile of the Public Service and the Employed Labour Force 23

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While the Public Service has a higher average age than the employed labour force, both workforces have been aging at the same rate. Over the five years to 30 June 2008, the average age of both the Public Service and the employed labour force increased by 11 months to 42.8 years and 40.9 years respectively.

20 Ethnicity is recorded and reported based on the Statistics New Zealand "Statistical Standard for Ethnicity 2005". People recording more than one ethnic group are counted multiple times. Percentages in Table 12 are of those with a known ethnicity.

21 Source: Census 2006, Statistics New Zealand. This column represents the ethnic diversity of the employed usual resident population aged 15 and over.

22 Previously reported figures in the combined New Zealand European and Non-New Zealand European group have been revised.

23 Source: Household Labour Force Survey, Statistics New Zealand.

Leave

Annual leave and department day entitlements

The proportion of full-time permanent Public Service employees receiving 25 days or more annual leave as at 30 June 2008 was 43% (42% in 2007). This follows a sharp increase between 2006 and 2007, following legislative changes which increased the minimum statutory annual leave entitlement. Refer to Table 14 below for annual leave entitlements since 2003.

Table 14. Annual leave entitlements, 2003-2008 (% of permanent full-time staff 24 )

                 
 

Annual leave entitlement (%)

Total leave entitlement 25 (%)

 

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2007

2008

Less than 20 days

30

31

23

12

0

0

0

0

20 days

44

45

39

48

35

32

16

12

Over 20 and less than 25 days

16

15

18

12

23

25

34

36

25 days

5

4

15

24

29

32

30

35

Over 25 days

5

5

5

4

13

11

20

18

This is the second year that the HRC has collected information on department day entitlements. As at 30 June 2008, 57% of employees did not receive any departmental day entitlement (60% in 2007), and 37% of employees received three or more days entitlement (35% in 2007).

When annual leave and departmental day entitlements are added together, 53% of permanent full time public service staff were entitled to 25 days or more leave per year.

Sick leave taken

In the year to 30 June 2008, full time permanent employees took an average of 7.3 days of sick and domestic leave. This is the highest average number of days recorded since the data was first collected in 2003 (see Table 15). Between 2003 and 2007 the average number of days taken had been stable, ranging between 6.5 and 6.9 days. Of the 35 Public Service departments, 23 showed an increase in the amount of sick and domestic leave taken this year.

Table 15. Sick and domestic leave taken, 2003-2008

 

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Average sick and domestic leave taken (days)

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.6

6.5

7.3

Parental leave

As at 30 June 2008, there were 673 employees on parental leave, of whom 657 were female and 16 male (2007 figures were 605 total, 589 females and 16 males).

During the year to 30 June 2008, 722 employees completed a period of parental leave and 78 of these employees were men. The average length of parental leave for women was 219 calendar days (approximately seven months) compared with 50 calendar days for men.

A high proportion of employees who had recently returned from parental leave worked less than full-time as at 30 June 2008. Of the 644 women who returned from parental leave during the year, 41% worked less than full-time, compared to 17% among all women in the Public Service.

24 Part-time staff are excluded because their leave entitlements can be affected by the number of days worked (for example 8 days entitlement for an employee working 2 days per week). Annual leave entitlement data has been collected since 2003.

25 Total leave entitlement has two components: annual leave and department days. Department days traditionally cover the working days between Christmas and New Year.

Appendix 1: Full-time equivalent employees by department, 2003-2008

Department

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

% change

(2007 - 2008)

Agriculture & Forestry 26

1,291

1,355

1,480

1,556

1,592

1,215

-

Archives

109

109

100

100

109

119

9%

Building & Housing 27

142

151

215

306

332

340

2%

Child, Youth & Family Services

2,187

2,463

2,663

2,831

-

-

-

Conservation

1,763

1,838

1,891

1,954

1,996

2,005

0%

Corrections

4,285

4,620

5,113

5,600

6,332

6,803

7%

Crown Law Office

129

141

152

153

173

175

1%

Culture and Heritage

57

70

72

86

89

100

12%

Customs

8,38

1,039

1,199

1,177

1,198

1,182

-1%

Defence

52

57

54

58

59

56

-4%

Economic Development

653

700

697

716

686

731

7%

Education

1,849

2,297

2,449

2,442

2,554

2,552

0%

Education Review Office

173

199

227

246

233

213

-9%

Environment

172

219

222

249

266

284

7%

Fisheries

336

366

372

409

437

435

0%

Foreign Affairs & Trade

622

636

664

699

723

790

9%

Government Communications Security Bureau

253

276

295

293

292

293

0%

Health

1,012

1,085

1,061

1,157

1,278

1,432

12%

Inland Revenue Department

4,523

4,580

4,760

5,224

5,595

5,880

5%

Internal Affairs

984

1,063

1,098

1,223

1,268

1,299

2%

Justice

2,254

2,348

2,574

2,733

2,852

3,046

7%

Labour

1,199

1,322

1,371

1,546

1,608

1,808

12%

Land Information New Zealand

583

552

546

563

504

515

2%

Māori Development

343

335

342

366

391

361

-8%

National Library

357

358

353

367

352

358

2%

NZ Food Safety Authority 28

-

-

-

-

-

488

-

Pacific Island Affairs

44

53

52

49

49

43

-13%

Prime Minister & Cabinet

105

110

114

106

109

106

-2%

Research, Science & Technology

59

62

69

68

71

70

-1%

Serious Fraud Office

33

33

29

29

29

34

18%

Social Development 29

5,505

5,903

6,412

6,299

9,323

9,237

-1%

State Services Commission

154

155

153

180

215

233

8%

Statistics New Zealand

604

690

709

800

786

787

0%

Transport 30

68

74

128

146

150

174

17%

Treasury

326

330

337

324

330

338

2%

Women's Affairs

20

25

26

29

34

34

0%

Total 31

33,118

35,645

38,032

40,113

42,047

43,569

3.6%

26 Figures prior to 2008 include the NZ Food Safety Authority. The 2007 and 2008 figures are not directly comparable; the percentage change has not been calculated.

27 The Department of Building and Housing was established on 1 November 2004 incorporating the Ministry of Housing, building policy functions from MED, the Building Industry Authority (30 November 2004), the Weathertight Homes Resolution Service from DIA (1 July 2005) and the Electrical Workers Registration Board from MED (1 September 2006). Figures prior to the 2005 survey relate to the Ministry of Housing.

28 The New Zealand Food Safety Authority was established on 1 July 2007 and was previously part of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

29 The Ministry of Social Development includes Child, Youth and Family Services from 2007.

30 The Ministry of Transport had additional functions added in the 2004/2005 year.

31 Totals include chief executives, who are not part of the departmental figures.

Appendix 2: Percentage of women and contract type by department, June 2008

 

Women

(%)

Individual agreement

(%)

Collective agreement

(%)

Expired collective 32

(%)

Agriculture & Forestry

47

43

57

0

Archives

60

42

58

0

Building & Housing

57

68

32

0

Conservation

37

28

72

0

Corrections

39

33

54

13

Crown Law Office

70

58

0

42

Culture and Heritage

60

62

38

0

Customs

39

37

0

63

Defence

37

100

0

0

Economic Development

54

85

15

0

Education

81

71

23

6

Education Review Office

73

25

75

0

Environment

61

56

44

0

Fisheries

33

78

22

0

Foreign Affairs & Trade

55

34

2

65

Government Communications Security Bureau

28

100

0

0

Health

63

94

6

0

Inland Revenue Department

66

34

66

0

Internal Affairs

54

61

7

31

Justice

65

44

55

2

Labour

58

54

0

46

Land Information New Zealand

42

56

0

44

Māori Development

60

63

37

0

National Library

69

30

70

0

NZ Food Safety Authority

46

67

33

0

Pacific Island Affairs

53

100

0

0

Prime Minister & Cabinet

56

100

0

0

Research, Science & Technology

60

100

0

0

Serious Fraud Office

49

100

0

0

Social Development

73

35

65

0

State Services Commission

58

100

0

0

Statistics New Zealand

52

59

41

0

Transport

52

70

0

30

Treasury

49

100

0

0

Women's Affairs

84

65

0

35

Public Service Total

59

46

45

9

32 The category 'expired collective' covers agreements that have been expired for less than 12 months. Collective agreements that expired over 12 months ago are treated as individual employment agreements.

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